Questions Report

The 1-19-2022 South32 Pre-Feasibility-Study (PFS) contains information that, in my opinion, may be incorrect.

Two quotations from the South32 PFS aroused my curiosity. As a retired Ph.D. engineer, I’ve followed the renewable energy production and storage industry for more than eight years. It is easy for me to find up-to-date information on these topics.

1. “Lead demand is expected to increase because of demand for renewable energy storage”.

Lead-acid batteries in cars and trucks have a lifespan of less than eight years. Compared with modern Lithium-Ion batteries, it is my understanding that lead-acid batteries are not suitable for use in homes or Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV).

2. “We are undertaking a Pre-Project-Study for Clark to increase our confidence in the mining and processing assumptions of preferred development opportunities in the rapidly growing battery-grade manganese markets”. 

It is my understanding that all BEV manufacturers have chosen Lithium Iron Phosphate (LIPO) as their favored battery chemistry. This is based on manufacturing cost, safety, and humanitarian issues. No manganese is used in LIPO batteries.

Dave Ellis



In the February issue of the PRT we incorrectly stated that Jessica Rubin, DVM graduated from the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, located in Auburn TN. Auburn College of Veterinary Medicine is located in Auburn, AL. 

We apologize for this error.